defined as the study of life. BIO-'life' and LOGY-'the
were to take a large number of living things, you would notice that they
all have something in common. However, you would also know that they are
different as well.
things show UNITY (similarities) as well showing a great deal of
Here is what all living
things have in common...
1) All living things
are highly organized and contain many complex chemical substances.
2) All living things
contain one or more cells.
contains just one cell
MULTICELLULAR- contains many cells
3) All living things
4) Living things have
a definite form and have a limited size.
5) Living things grow.
6) Living things respond
to changes in the environment.
7) Living things can
8) Living things eventually
Nonliving objects may
show one, or even a few of these characteristics but they never show all
We can take these characteristics
of life and simplify each...these will make up the 8 life functions.
things as alive if they can carry out these 8 LIFE FUNCTIONS.
R R E G N T S
a look at the 8 life functions in a bit more detail...
the breakdown of nutrients to yield (or give off) chemical energy
there are 2 types
1) aerobic respiration- uses oxygen
2) anaerobic respiration- doesn't use oxygen
the process where a living thing controls and coordinates its various
1) nervous system uses nerve cells
2) endocrine system uses hormones
some parts produce hormones
the process by which living things produce new living things of the same
there are 2 types
1) asexual reproduction--involves one parent and the offspring
are identical to the parent
2) sexual reproduction--involves two parents and the offspring
is a combination of both parents
the process by which living things remove waste products produced by cell
the process by which living things increase in size or cell number
the process by which living things take in materials from its environment
for growth and repair; there are 2 types
1) autotrophic nutrition--where a living thing can make its own
2) heterotrophic nutrition--where a living thing must ingest (take
in) its food
the process by which usable materials are taken into the living thing
(ABSORPTION) and distributed throughout the living thing (CIRCULATION)
the process by which smaller, simple substances are combined chemically
to form larger, more complex substances
If a living thing has all 8 off these life functions, it is called an
When we refer to all
of the life functions of an organism, we are referring to its METABOLISM--the
total of all the life functions required to sustain life (to stay alive)
+ R + R + E + G + N + T + S =
An organism's external
(outside) environment is always changing. By keeping the control and regulation
of its metabolic activities, an organism can maintain a stable internal
(inside) environment. This is called HOMEOSTASIS.
the process by which an organism's metabolic activities are in a state
ex. body temp, blood sugar levels